Португальский язык/Бразильский язык/§3

Материал из Викиверситета

Времена сослагательного наклонение (Subjuntivo)[править]

The subjunctive is used after verbs expressing emotion, uncertainty, doubt, denial, permission, command. It is found in subordinate clauses where the subject is different from that in the main clause and is also used in ‘if’ clauses.

Present subjunctive[править]

Sentimos muito que você esteja triste. We are sorry that you are sad. Formation: delete the o from the first person present indicative (falo) and add for verbs ending in:

-ar -e -es -e -emos -eis -em -er + -ir -a -as -a -amos -ais -am

Perfect subjunctive[править]

Duvidamos que você tenha lido We doubt that you have read

                                        the book.
  o livro.

Formation: present subjunctive of ter plus past participle:

                                      tenhais tenham falado, bebido, etc.

tenha tenhas tenha tenhamos

Imperfect subjunctive[править]

Se eu tivesse tempo faria o curso. If I had time I would do the course. Formation: remove -ram ending from third person plural preterite and add: -sse -sses -sse -ssemos -sseis -ssem

Pluperfect subjunctive[править]

Se tivesse encontrado a chave, teria fechado a porta. If I had found the key, I would have locked the door. Formation: imperfect subjunctive of ter plus past participle: tivesse tivesses tivesse tivéssemos tivésseis tivessem falado, bebido, etc.

Future subjunctive[править]

Usually follows: quando, enquanto, como, logo que, assim que, se: Eu telefonarei quando eles chegarem. I will telephone when they arrive. Formation: remove -ram ending from Preterite third person plural and add for all verbs:

    -r     -res     -r     -rmos      -rdes      -rem

Future Perfect subjunctive[править]

Mande-me um email logo que tiveres recebido a encomenda. Send me an email as soon as you have received the order. Formation: from future subjunctive of ter plus past participle:

                                             tiverem falado, bebido, etc.

tiver tiveres tiver tivermos tiverdes

Повелительное наклонение Imperative[править]

Is used to express commands, instructions and advice Affirmative imperatives tu and vós: the imperatives are formed from the present indicative with the final -s of the verb removed: falar to speak beber to drink partir to leave falas! (tu) bebes! (tu) partes! (tu)

         (vós)                bebeis!   (vós)                 partis!   (vós)

falais! você, nós and vocês: the present subjunctive is used falar to speak beber to drink partir to leave fale! (você) beba! (você) parta! (você) falemos! (nós) bebamos! (nós) partamos! (nós) falem! (vocês) bebam! (vocês) partam! (vocês)

Negative imperatives[править]

The present subjunctive preceded by a negative word is used.

  Não . . . fale (tu), fale (você), falemos (nós), faleis (vós),
  falem (vocês)! Don’t talk!

In colloquial language the present indicative is often used for negative commands and not the present subjunctive: não fala! (tu).

  Also, tu and você imperatives are often mixed in colloquial language:
  bebe! (tu) fica! (você)

Пассивный залог[править]

This is used to express ‘was sold, were eaten’.

  Formation: ser (any tense) plus past participle (which agrees with

subject of verb):

  As ilhas foram invadidas.             The islands were invaded.
  O vencedor será anunciado.            The winner will be announced.


Причастие образуется у правильных главголов заменой окончаний инфинитива:

-ar -> -ado

-er -> -ido

-ir -> -ido

Для неправильных глаголов нет правила, просто надо зпомнить.


fazer — feito — сделанный

ecreve — escrito — написанный

abrir — aberto — открытый

Используются для образования страдательного залога и переводится обычно в совершенной форме и отвечают на вопрос «Какой?»

Some verbs have two past participle forms — regular and irregular. Examples: Verb Regular past Irregular past

                          participle        participle
                          nascido           nato
           to be born                                      born


                          acendido          aceso          lit
           to light



Expresses ‘-ing’ (‘dancing, finishing’).

  Together with an auxiliary verb (estar, andar, ir, vir) the gerund

expresses continuous, progressive action:

                       Jane is (in the process of ) singing.

Jane está cantando. Orthography-changing verbs These are spelling changes to the final consonant of verb stem to preserve original verb sound:

          >                           >
             conheço                      fique

conhecer ficar (soft ‘c’) (hard ‘c’) Radical-changing verbs The stem vowel of some verbs (mostly -ir) changes in the first person of the present indicative.

  servir > sirvo     serves    serve    servimos servis      servem

Brazilian Portuguese spelling – There will be changes from 2008. Check Suggestions for Further Reading for the web site address. Irregular verbs